Prohibition of Takfir and its Risks
2019-12-19 10:28:28Z    
The book contains a definition of the "Kufr" concept, its historical roots, reasons of Takfir, ignorance of religious knowledge, and misinterpretation of religious texts, the Prophet's warning of Takfir, and subsequently scholars' warning of it following the Sunnah". Besides, the book includes risks of Takfir such as the disintegration of society and family and fuelling hatred and intolerance among individuals of the society.

Moreover, the book concentrates on Islam’s warning of judging Muslims of Kufr, as Islamic law didn’t leave the matter of Takfir to the Muslims individuals, but the Shariah devoted it to the guardians or whom they may delegate, i.e. “judges or Muftis” in the current era.

The book was introduced by Prof. Abdul Fadeel al-Qousy, Member of Al-Azhar Council of Senior Scholars, as he said: “Every issue has a multiplicity of views:  The thoughtful finds himself between two sides that stand in stark contrast to each other. Each one seeks to destroy and deny the other without justice. Each one sees in his opposite- with the eye of discontent - evil over evil, and the dialogue between them - then - loses credibility of truth, tolerance of fairness, and the virtue of moderation!!

The writers of the book stressed that Islam strongly warned of judging Muslims of Takfir. Furthermore, the Shariah didn’t let the matter of Takfir to anyone, except the ruler or to whom he may delegate. It is worth mentioning that Takfir entrusted to the judiciary in the current era, considering that apostasy is a punishable offence by law. When Khawarij dared to declare Ali Ibn Abi Talib (May Allah be pleased with him) as infidel in the year of 36 H, although he was the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law because he agreed to arbitration with his rival; they didn’t differentiate between the arbitration and the judgment, then they deviated from the right approach. Subsequently, they are followed in this astray by a sect that brought great evil to Islam and Muslims.  

As regards the concept of Kufr, the book confirmed that it is the opposite of faith. Moreover, Takfir has been associated with the name “Khawarij”, since the year 36 H, and the proof of that is known in the scholars’ books, such as the history of Islam”, by Hafiz Abi Abdullah Al-Zahabi and others.

Additionally, the book explained the reason behind the spread of the concept of "Takfir" which are: ignorance, illiteracy, capriciousness as well as the misinterpretation of the Qur'an and Sunnah texts. Indeed, the extremists used to apply the Qur'anic verses, tackling infidels,  to fellow Muslims and believers; in such vein, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had warned against practicing "Takfir", as he said: " "If a man says to his Muslim brother, 'O kafir!' it is true about one of them". Again, Muslim scholars throughout history have been warning against "Takfir", as Ibn Hajar al-Haytami mentioned in such matter: "Our Imams have declared that if anyone is suspected to be an infidel (Kafir), he/she shall not be judged until being investigated". 
Moreover, the book demonstrated what Imam al-Ghazali had stated in such matter, saying: "Prudence should be considered while tackling "Takfir"; the profanation of the blood and the properties of believers who carry on their religious duties and declaring them as "Infidels" " kuffar " is a big mistake. Indeed, sparing the lives of thousands of suspected infidels is better than shedding the blood of innocent Muslims". Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also mentioned in such matter: "I have been commanded to fight the people until they say "there is no deity but Allah". If they say it then their blood and their wealth are safe from me, except for a right that is due, and their reckoning will be with Allah". 
 Furthermore, the book explained the dangers and threats posed by "Takfir", which may include fragmenting the Muslim society, inciting conflicts and divisions among Muslims, shedding the blood of innocent people. Again, practicing "Takfir" infringes the orders of Allah Almighty and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), besides, declaring a fellow Muslim as infidel "Kafir" permits killing him; in fact, it is well known that declaring a Muslim as an "Apostate" (Murtad) results in several consequences and punishments in life and afterlife. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said in such vein: "Whoever changes his religion (i.e. apostates) kill him". Hence, the first punishment of an apostate is to kill him, if he does not repent. In fact, senior Muslim scholars differed concerning the issue of repentance, whether it is desirable or an obligation. At the same time, the marriage of an apostate shall be in danger; according to Imam Abu Hanifa, an apostate shall be divorced from his wife, yet, according to Imam Al-Shafi‘i, an apostate shall be separated from his wife and shall be forbidden from living with her. Again, an apostate neither shall he get an inheritance from his Muslim family nor shall be inherited; besides, in case of his death, he shall not be granted any prayers, never to be washed or shrouded and not to be buried in Muslim cemeteries, since he will be residing in hell forever.